|On October, 7, 2002 in Almaty the Conference on a theme " Joining of Republic of Kazakhstan into world trading organization (WTO): problems and prospects " has been held.|
|The organizer of conference - the Ministry of the industry and trade РК.|
As the purpose of conference open dialogue on problems of the introduction of Kazakhstan in ВТО, an estimation of advantages and losses for the Kazakhstan economy, development(manufacture) of offers on minimization of negative consequences from the introduction has served. Representatives of Parliament RK, the Ministry of transport and communications РК took part in work of conference, public organizations, bank structures, scientific circles(around) and the enterprises of republic.
At conference with the report " Separate questions of entry of Kazakhstan in ВТО " the general Director of an IMC "Алматы-Moscow" Bijarov M.N. has acted (see below). In the report Mr. Bijarov has noted some aspects of entry of a Republic of Kazakhstans in ВТО, and also a role and value of the Inter-regional marketing centre "Алматы-Moscow" in promotion of the goods of the Kazakhstan entrepreneurs on the world market.
The text of performance(statement)
The general director of an IMC "Алматы-Moscow"
Bijarova M.N. at conference
On a theme " the Introduction of a Republic of Kazakhstans
In the World Trading organization:
Problems and prospects "
Separate questions of entry of Kazakhstan in ВТО.
Powerful arguments for the benefit of the fast introduction of Kazakhstan in ВТО is the opportunity of reception of immediate benefits at opening the markets of other countries for domestic entrepreneurship. Kazakhstan also expects with the introduction in ВТО for increase of a stream of foreign investments, at development of bank system, at increase of capitalization, at acceleration of reform and at expansion of process of integration in economic.
The given conference is useful to that has given us an opportunity to express the concern and to define concrete steps on preparation for entry of Kazakhstan in ВТО. For example, a number of the requirements showed to Russia from name ВТО is known. In particular, from Russia "alignment" of the internal and external prices for energy carriers, liquidation of export duties on the raw goods is required and also to change the order of collection of the VAT inside the CIS. If similar requirements are showed by countries - members ВТО and to Kazakhstan would be expedient to compare prospective benefits from the introduction in ВТО in the given stage with inevitable losses.
For acceptance of optimum decisions by preparation for entry of Kazakhstan in ВТО, there will be useful an open discussion at the given conference of process of connection., also, it is necessary to start in the state scale, alongside with информационно-explanatory work among entrepreneurs about agreements ВТО, a professional training for work in new conditions on a home market after connection to ВТО.
The introduction of the country in ВТО assumes removal of any barriers to import and a cancel of the grants intended for internal support of manufacture and support of export of agricultural production and the foodstuffs. At very weak development and vulnerability, the agricultural sector of Kazakhstan will not sustain the foreign trade expansion of the advanced countries, neighbours on region and the countries of the Eurounion which annually subsidize export of the farms at a rate of 5,6 billion euro.
The Kazakhstan farmers today work in a zone of risky agriculture in conditions of chronic deficiency of agricultural machinery, mineral fertilizers, pesticides and waters. In result, the cost price of production made by them appears so dear(expensive), that there is unprofitable a realization and delivery from one region in another, and even inside the country. In such situation we nothing can resist to the gushed stream of cheap, qualitative delivery сельхозпродукции and the foodstuffs from the outside, that will result, in turn, in mass unemployment in villages. That it did not happen, it is necessary to defer entry in ВТО on defined time and to undertake urgently the decision of problems of an agriculture. As much as possible it is necessary to increase subsidizing сельхозсектора for that simple reason, that the sizes of grants for entering in the VTO countries are defined(determined) on the basis of the data on the sizes of grants within several last years.
In general(common) rules ВТО in the field of trade relations there are following interdictions:
- on granting to domestic manufacturers of any grants who break positions of appropriate agreements ВТО (including the export and import grants given under the state programs of development of concrete industries);
- on prohibition or restriction of import of the concrete goods;
- on introduction antidumping, компенсационных or special protective duties;
- on licensing of import of the goods;
- on prohibition or restriction of export of the concrete goods;
- on introduction of national standards which can be considered(examined) as technical barriers in trade;
- on application of the preferential taxation of the goods of a domestic production in comparison with the import goods etc.
It agrees Agreements on grants and компенсационных measures which was developed even during activity ГАТТ, categories of grants among which it is necessary to note export grants which the state bodies in countries - members ВТО are forbidden for giving domestic-owned firms are established. The given interdiction renders negative influence on development of export of the domestic goods with a high degree of processing or stimulation импортозамещения.
Owing to raw ориентированности economy of Kazakhstan, it will be difficult to protect manufactures of other sectors from a foreign competition. First of all, expansion of the transnational corporations having huge experience of competitive struggle, the textile industry, mechanical engineering, financial sector (test on itself the insurance companies and banks), retail trade.
The aspiration to the immediate introduction in ВТО would be justified, if we traded in production with the high added cost. For our raw export (uranium, steel, nonferrous metals etc.), membership of Kazakhstan in ВТО will not create any special privileges. The introduction in ВТО does not guarantee protection against application against our goods of antidumping measures and will not help with overcoming a special mode - not tariff restriction on trade in steel (the given restrictions are behind frameworks ВТО). Kazakhstan today is recognized as the country with market economy in this connection has become possible to resist дискриминациям in sphere of foreign trade, not having become still member ВТО. This is promoted also by that Kazakhstan for a long time uses a most favoured nation treatment in the relation with the basic trading partners.
At the introduction in ВТО wins that sector of economy where the competitive goods are made and realized. Unfortunately, today production of many branches of the Kazakhstan economy is not competitive and is not claimed on a foreign market. At low competitiveness of a domestic production, entry in ВТО will provoke intervention of the cheap import goods and services, in result, instead of expected inflow of investments, we shall concede an essential share of the domestic market to foreign firms. Worse that, separate noncompetitive branches can stop existence in general. On that market where there is an opportunity to put the goods, with investments do not hurry up.
Competitiveness of production is defined(determined) by a technological level, quality, appearance. A problem of many commodity producers - in absence of firm style, узнаваемой the trade mark, an own name. However a determinative at competitive struggle all the same is not quality, and lower price. Last factor is the most formidable for our manufacturers because of the high rate for the credit, absence of investments and as a result there is no access to new technologies.
Entry in ВТО will demand from Kazakhstan acceptance объязательств on the further liberalization of access of foreign services (audit, consulting, construction, the international transportations, tourism etc.) and their suppliers on the Kazakhstan market.
China and separate less developed countries expect for opening by the advanced countries - members ВТО of separate sectors of economy to increase their participation in world trade by services. The important making delivery of services, is, in their opinion - moving of physical persons. Liberalization in this area can result in migration of a cheap labour and experts that will aggravate without that a complex(difficult) problem of unemployment in the separate countries.
- Special studying the account of possible negative consequences for small business in case of entry of Kazakhstan in ВТО and demands a measure for his(its) protection. In sector small предпринимательмтва the basic potential of economic growth of the country is concentrated. The new state program of support of small business for creation of conditions of his(its) survival rate in competitive struggle against entrepreneurs of other members ВТО is necessary. It is necessary to create an infrastructure of support of entrepreneurship (business - incubators, технопарки, the credit unions and the insurance companies, the information, research and marketing centres etc.) and to stimulate investment and innovational processes. In the program priorities should be given rendering to small enterprises of the help in purchase of licenses and a know-how, trade marks, technologies, and also tenancy of the equipment by him(it) and the areas at the enterprises of branch.
Thus, the introduction of Kazakhstan in ВТО - a question, in effect, decided(solved). Kazakhstan can not remain outside of the organization which norms are adjusted today about 95 % of all world trade by the goods and services and which unites 150 countries of the world. Hence, we should concentrate and find the answer to a question - when and on what conditions?